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End-Of-Life Considerations

End-Of-Life Considerations

Culture Table



Instructions: Complete the following table for your chosen culture. Be sure to cite and reference necessary sources according to APA format, using the last page for your reference list.

Name: ______________________________________________________________________

Chosen Culture: _______________________________________________________________


General Overview of Chosen Culture The history of Indian culture dates back at least 4,500 years, making it one of the globe’s oldest civilizations. In the seven-nation South Asian Subcontinent, India occupies the greatest portion. The total population of this culture is about 1.3 billion (Zimmermann & Gordon, 2022). Approximately 80% of Indian culture is Hindu, with the remaining percentage comprising various religions such as Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Parsis. Different sects of Hinduism hold varying philosophical views and worship different deities. Karma, the rule of conduct and repercussions according to which one’s deeds in their past life(s) influence the situations in which they are born and live, is a common element of the Indian culture that influences health choices and communications between the patients, their relatives, and their providers. Consequently, the patient may attribute their condition to karma.


There are two significant groups of Indian culture languages, the Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in the north and the Dravidian dialects in the south. Although Hindi is the most common language among Indo-Aryans, there are many more languages spoken by this group. Approximately a third of the population speaks it as their native tongue; English is widely taught as a second dialect and is the de facto international business-standard.


Within the Indian culture, membership in a particular group is more important than their individuality when determining who they are. Families are strongly influenced by patriarchal ideologies (fathers as leaders of the families), the patrilineal law of succession, and conventional gender role preferences. There is a clear divide between male and female responsibilities within the families in the Indian culture. Women run the household and handle all the money, familial, and social matters. Most of the time, men are the primary breadwinners and in charge of community-based endeavors like health care, which necessitate engagement with public members.


Institutions like tribes, caste, religions, and marriages are part of India’s complex social system. It is estimated that 70% of Indians are of Indo-Aryan ancestry, 26% are Dravidian, 4% are Mongoloid, and 2% are of other ancestries (Shekhar Singh, 2019). There are four tiers of society according to The Caste. The Brahmans, or priests, make up the uppermost caste. Sudras, the working class, are the lowest social stratum. Before visiting a temple, it is customary in Indian culture to purify oneself by bathing or at the very least washing one’s hands and feet. This is done to rid oneself of any evil ideas or forces affecting them. Dressing appropriately, specifically in a manner that shows respect by displaying modesty, is of the utmost significance.

Values and Beliefs that Impact Health Care · Indians have perfected the art of healthy lifestyles for thousands of years through their devotion to vegetarianism, yoga, and Ayurvedic medicine.

· Pain and suffering are seen as natural results of karma in the Indian culture.

· Death and disease are simply parts of life, and the timing of one’s passing is up to fate.

· Neither euthanasia nor physician-assisted suicide is advocated.

· Blood transfusions are permitted.

· The extended use of artificial life support in vegetative states for patients near death is not recommended.

(Zimmermann & Gordon, 2022)

· Organ donation and transplantation are legal.

· An autopsy is allowed.

· Except for specific medical circumstances, abortion is not recommended.

· There is no practice of circumcising newborn boys.

· The use of genetic engineering to find treatments for diseases is permitted.

· The evil eye is a powerful belief in Indian culture, and some people attribute mental disease to it.

· Mental disease, along with all other forms of sickness, is attributed to karma incurred in this or former life.

(Pande, 2017)

Nursing Approaches and Considerations · Indian culture considers a person to be made up of their mind, soul, and body, all of which interact with their immediate surroundings (including their families, culture, and surroundings). Therefore, the family, social groups (caste), and surroundings are integral to the individual’s identity. Because of this, nursing interventions should take into account the patient as a whole.

· An integral part of providing medical treatment in Indian culture is listening to the patient’s wishes and respecting them. Local traditions in various parts of India may differ, and a client’s traditions must be respected.

· A large number of Indian ladies decorate their foreheads with a red dot. This indicates that they are married. Additional marriage indications include necklaces, or bracelets, which the Indian culture requires that they are not removed (Zimmermann & Gordon, 2022). If the patient’s jewellery needs to be removed for whatever reason, they should be informed beforehand. The hospital’s policy for handling patients must be adhered to at all times.

· Modesty and privacy are highly valued in Indian culture. It is therefore important to put in place considerations for women to get checked by female physicians.

· The sacred thread, given to a child at the Upanayna rite when he is twelve and thirteen, may be worn by some males in the Indian culture. At all times, one should have the sacred thread wrapped around their body (Pande, 2017). Before removing the sacred thread, the person needs to be consulted about their wishes.

· Religious Indians may choose to keep a photo, books, or prayer beads in their hospital rooms. They may also wish to play religious music, which should be considered to ensure better healthcare outcomes.

Alignment to Christian Worldview The best way to care for an Indian patient is to inquire about their religious and spiritual preferences. Indian culture is enormous and incredibly varied in its representation. Since customs and practices differ from one household to another and one culture to another, it is impossible to define such customs and preferences (Zimmermann & Gordon, 2022). To offer proper care, health professionals should discuss various subjects with their clients, including dietary requirements, astrological opinions, bathing and purification, and prayers and meditation.

Focusing on providing comprehensive care to all patients of the Indian culture, clinics and other medical institutions must provide for their client’s spiritual and emotional requirements.

Healthcare facilities need to have chaplains available for patients and their loved ones. As spiritual leaders and representatives of various faiths, chaplains draw from psychological and spiritual tenets in their work. A chaplain’s duties may include counselling patients and staff members of all faiths, praying with those who ask, and simply being there for anyone who needs someone to talk to.









Pande, S. (2017). Indian Symbolism: Symbols as Sources of our Customs and Beliefs. Indian Historical Review, 26(2), 181-184. https://doi.org/10.3477/037698361702600210

Shekhar Singh, M. (2019). Book Review: Uwe Skoda and Birgit Lettmann, eds. 2018. India and its Visual Cultures: Community, Class and Gender in a Symbolic Landscape. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 53(3), 466-468. https://doi.org/10.1177/0069966719860369

Zimmermann, K., & Gordon, J. (2022). Indian Culture: Traditions and Customs of India. livescience.com. Retrieved 11 August 2022, from https://www.livescience.com/28634-indian-culture.html#:~:text=Some%20estimates%2C%20such%20as%20those,largely%20of%20South%20Asian%20descent).






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